When the moon passes directly between the earth and the sun, its shadow falls on the surface of the earth, and an eclipse of the sun takes place i.e. solar eclipse.
It occurs only when there in new moon and the moon is on that side of the earth facing toward the sun. Then why isn’t there a solar eclipse every time there’s a new moon? The reason is that the moon passes sometimes above and sometimes below the path of the earth. A solar eclipse can be total, annular, or partial.
An eclipse of the moon i.e. lunar eclipse occurs only when the moon is full, and it is at the opposite side of the earth from the sun. When the moon comes directly behind the earth, as seen from the sun, it passes gradually into the great shadow-cone cast by the earth and disappears from view. In some years, no eclipses of the moon occur. In other years, there are from one to three. Every year, there must be at least two solar eclipses, and there may be as many as five. At anyone place on the earth’s surface, a total solar eclipse will be visible only once in about 360 years.