stories for kids, indian stories, panchatantra, jataka, vikram betaal
india kids, india parents
indian stories for kids
Indian Stories
  Home   View All Stories    Read Kids Articles   Classifieds    Feedback   



 Post Comments

Indian Ancient Maritime History

Indian Ancient Maritime History
India has had a maritime history dating back almost 2,500 years. While the initial impetus to develop maritime links was trade (primarily in cotton, pepper and other spices), due to the monopoly of the Persians and the Arabs over land-based caravan routes, the later maritime journeys spread the influence of early Indian civilisation as far as the islands of Sumatra to the East, and the East coast of Africa to the West.

 

Alexander the Great fighting the Persian king Darius (Pompeii mosaic, from a 3rd century BC original Greek painting, now lost).

Alexander
During the 4th century BC, Alexander the Great shipped the bulk of his army from North Western India (Patala or Xylinepolis) to Egypt via the Indian Ocean led by his friend, Nearchus who also wrote the book, Indikê about the voyage. This was after he sailed down the Indus.

Mauryan Empire
The earliest traceable reference to a organization devoted to ships in ancient India is to the Mauryan Empire from the 4th century BC. Emperor Chandragupta Maurya's Prime Minister Kautilya's Arthashastra devotes a full chapter on the state department of waterways under navadhyaksha (Sanskrit for Superintendent of ships) [1]. The term, nava dvipantaragamanam (Sanskrit for sailing to other lands by ships) appears in this book in addition to appearing in the Buddhist text, Baudhayana Dharmasastra as the interpretation of the term, Samudrasamyanam.

House of Ptolemy
Around 116 BC an interesting incident that had happened in Egypt was reported by Posidonius (ca. 135 BC - 51 BC (also spelled Poseidonius), and later recorded by Strabo. We are told that a shipwrecked Indian sailor was discovered, half-dead, by coast guards on the Red Sea, and was brought to the Egyptian King Physkon (also known as Physcon or Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II) during 118 BC. The sailor said he was the sole survivor of a ship that had sailed from India. The sailor promised to guide any of the King’s navigators on a voyage to India. So a Greek sailor, Eudoxus of Kyzicus (himself an envoy from Greece to Ptolemy VIII), was appointed to that mission.

Roman connection
Roman Emperor Augustus Caesar in 26 BC commissioned his prefect in Egypt, Aelius Gallus, to capture the port of Aden to attack the Ethiopians who controlled the trade from India. This was after the death of Cleopatra in 30 B.C. Although Augustus was unsuccesful in capturing Arabia Felix (present day Yemen), the Romans opened sea routes to India through the Red Sea, where they could buy Chinese silk, bypassing war-torn areas and diminishing the role of Persians and Arabs who previously dominated the trade. Greek writer, Nicolaus of Damascus records an Indian delegation from Pandion (Pandyan?) visited Emperor Augustus in 13 BC at Antioch.

All text of this article available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License (see Copyrights for details).

Read Comments
Submitted By:viagra_online
Date: 9/19/2016
viagra online For Women Available In India in Carrollton .

Submitted By:viagra_sale
Date: 10/26/2016
This is depends on improving the prostate sex viagra sale for women problems like Cialis lasts.

Submitted By:viagra_pills
Date: 12/14/2016
Commenter Surely it is time for female viagra pills or something similar.

Submitted By:uk
Date: 2/3/2017
Chief operating officer of buy cheapest uk supplier viagra jelly for daily use.

Submitted By:generic
Date: 2/28/2017
Get Low-cost http://cia1sideffects.com/ for the Best Deals.

Submitted By:kevdnevgisn
Date: 3/26/2017
QwVlkT urljjzhoazyn, [url=http://vcesrvnvwvbh.com/]vcesrvnvwvbh[/url], [link=http://finvvwzmrcfm.com/]finvvwzmrcfm[/link], http://cfgaiwwbnnfz.com/

Submitted By:online
Date: 5/22/2017
RSS quick online loans instant approval puns feeds cialis pills for sale and intrusive sucidial thoughts.

Submitted By:http://regconlinepaydayloans.com/
Date: 6/20/2017
online payday loan - http://regconlinepaydayloans.com/ 1000 online payday loan quick online payday loans

Submitted By:http://regconlinepaydayloans.com/
Date: 6/20/2017
for online payday loans - http://regconlinepaydayloans.com/ loan online payday loan direct online payday loans

Submitted By:https://cashadvanceamericaavx.org/
Date: 6/22/2017
cash advance payday loans online - https://cashadvanceamericaavx.org/ cash advance payday loans online payday loans cash advances

Submitted By:https://badcreditloansrtju.org/
Date: 6/22/2017
personal loans with bad credit - https://badcreditloansrtju.org/ bad credit lender no payday loan bad credit easy payday loan

Submitted By:https://badcreditloansrtju.org/
Date: 6/22/2017
bad credit history payday loans - https://badcreditloansrtju.org/ loans bad credit loans for bad credit

Submitted By:https://cashadvanceloansbpo.org/
Date: 6/22/2017
payday loans cash advances - https://cashadvanceloansbpo.org/ cash advance payday loan payday loans cash advances

Submitted By:https://getinstallmentloanhnq.org/
Date: 6/22/2017
online installment loans - https://getinstallmentloanhnq.org/ online installment loans bad credit installment loans

Submitted By:http://cashadvancesquickcashrtb.org/
Date: 6/22/2017
cash advance loan - http://cashadvancesquickcashrtb.org/ cash advance cash advance payday loans online

Submitted By:https://badcreditloansrtju.org/
Date: 6/22/2017
bad credit lender no payday loan - https://badcreditloansrtju.org/ bad credit absolutely no faxing payday loan loans with bad credit

Submitted By:https://cashadvanceamericaavx.org/
Date: 6/22/2017
payday loans cash advances - https://cashadvanceamericaavx.org/ cash advance loans cash advance

Submitted By:https://cashadvanceamericaavx.org/
Date: 6/22/2017
cash advance loan - https://cashadvanceamericaavx.org/ cash advance online cash advance online

Submitted By:https://personalloansnhl.org/
Date: 6/22/2017
personal loans - https://personalloansnhl.org/ personal loans for bad credit bad credit personal loans

Submitted By:https://cashadvanceamericaavx.org/
Date: 6/22/2017
cash advance - https://cashadvanceamericaavx.org/ cash advance payday loan cash advance loans

Submitted By:https://paydayloansbadcredittybc.org/
Date: 6/22/2017
bad credit loans - https://paydayloansbadcredittybc.org/ bad credit personal loans personal loans for bad credit

Submitted By:https://paydayloansbadcredittybc.org/
Date: 6/22/2017
bad credit loans andnot payday loan - https://paydayloansbadcredittybc.org/ loans for bad credit bad credit loans

Submitted By:https://cashadvancetfj.com/
Date: 6/22/2017
payday loans cash advances - https://cashadvancetfj.com/ cash advance online cash advance loan

Submitted By:https://paydayeev.com/
Date: 6/22/2017
payday loans online - https://paydayeev.com/ no fax payday loans direct lenders quick faxless payday loan

Submitted By:https://paydayeev.com/
Date: 6/22/2017
payday loans - https://paydayeev.com/ payday loans no fax same day payday loans

Submitted By:https://personalloanplk.com/
Date: 6/22/2017
personal loans no faxing - https://personalloanplk.com/ bad credit personal loans personal loans with bad credit

Submitted By:https://badcreditjkkl.com/
Date: 6/22/2017
bad credit loans andnot payday loan - https://badcreditjkkl.com/ loan for bad credit bad credit loan payday loans payday lender bad credit loan

Submitted By:https://personalloanplk.com/
Date: 6/22/2017
unsecured personal loans - https://personalloanplk.com/ personal loans personal loans no faxing

Submitted By:https://installmentloannbbm.com/
Date: 6/22/2017
installment loans - https://installmentloannbbm.com/ bad credit installment loans installment payday loans

Submitted By:https://paydayloansxxe.com/
Date: 6/22/2017
payday loans no credit check - https://paydayloansxxe.com/ payday loans no credit check payday loans 300

Submitted By:https://badcreditjkkl.com/
Date: 6/22/2017
personal loans with bad credit - https://badcreditjkkl.com/ loan with bad credit bad credit lender no payday loan

Submitted By:https://personalloanplk.com/
Date: 6/22/2017
unsecured personal loans - https://personalloanplk.com/ personal loans for bad credit personal installment loan

Submitted By:https://paydayeev.com/
Date: 6/22/2017
payday advance usa - https://paydayeev.com/ no fax same day payday loans quick faxless payday loan

Submitted By:http://cialisonlineanegeneric.com/
Date: 6/22/2017
buy cialis - http://cialisonlineanegeneric.com/ generic cialis cialis online

Submitted By:https://installmentloannbbm.com/
Date: 6/22/2017
installment loans - https://installmentloannbbm.com/ get installment loan personal installment loan

Submitted By:https://cashadvancetfj.com/
Date: 6/22/2017
cash advance - https://cashadvancetfj.com/ cash advance payday loans online cash advance

Submitted By:http://cialisonlineanegeneric.com/
Date: 6/22/2017
cialis online - http://cialisonlineanegeneric.com/ cheap cialis cialis online

Submitted By:https://cashadvancetfj.com/
Date: 6/22/2017
cash advance online - https://cashadvancetfj.com/ cash advance payday loan payday loans cash advances

Submitted By:https://badcreditjkkl.com/
Date: 6/22/2017
personal loans bad credit - https://badcreditjkkl.com/ bad credit credit cards loans bad credit

Submitted By:https://personalloanplk.com/
Date: 6/22/2017
personal loans for bad credit - https://personalloanplk.com/ loans personal loans bad credit personal loans

Submitted By:https://cashadvancetfj.com/
Date: 6/22/2017
cash advance loans - https://cashadvancetfj.com/ cash advance payday loans online cash advance payday loans online

Submitted By:https://paydayloansxxe.com/
Date: 6/22/2017
bad credit instant approval payday loans - https://paydayloansxxe.com/ payday loans 300 payday loans no credit check

Submitted By:https://badcreditjkkl.com/
Date: 6/22/2017
loan for bad credit - https://badcreditjkkl.com/ personal loans with bad credit bad credit loan payday loans payday lender bad credit loan

Submitted By:https://installmentloannbbm.com/
Date: 6/22/2017
online installment loans - https://installmentloannbbm.com/ installment payday loans installment payday loans

Submitted By:https://installmentloannbbm.com/
Date: 6/22/2017
online installment loans - https://installmentloannbbm.com/ bad credit installment loans bad credit installment loans

Submitted By:https://personalloanplk.com/
Date: 6/22/2017
personal loans - https://personalloanplk.com/ personal loans bad credit personal loans

Submitted By:http://cialisonlineanegeneric.com/
Date: 6/22/2017
cheap cialis - http://cialisonlineanegeneric.com/ cialis cialis

Submitted By:https://badcreditjkkl.com/
Date: 6/22/2017
loans people bad credit - https://badcreditjkkl.com/ bad credit loans andnot payday loan loan with bad credit

Submitted By:https://installmentloannbbm.com/
Date: 6/22/2017
payday loan installment - https://installmentloannbbm.com/ installment payday loans get installment loan

Submitted By:https://paydayloansxxe.com/
Date: 6/22/2017
payday loans online - https://paydayloansxxe.com/ payday loans 300 payday loans 300

Submitted By:https://paydayloansxxe.com/
Date: 6/22/2017
payday loans and no credit check - https://paydayloansxxe.com/ payday loans payday loans online

Submitted By:https://paydayloansxxe.com/
Date: 6/22/2017
no fax same day payday loans - https://paydayloansxxe.com/ payday loans 300 payday loans no credit check

Submitted By:http://cialisonlineanegeneric.com/
Date: 6/22/2017
cialis online - http://cialisonlineanegeneric.com/ cheap cialis generic cialis

Submitted By:https://paydayeev.com/
Date: 6/22/2017
payday loan no fax document - https://paydayeev.com/ payday advance usa payday loans online

Submitted By:http://cialisonlineanegeneric.com/
Date: 6/22/2017
cheap cialis - http://cialisonlineanegeneric.com/ cialis online cialis online

Submitted By:https://paydayeev.com/
Date: 6/22/2017
payday loans online - https://paydayeev.com/ no fax payday loan today no fax payday loans direct lenders

Submitted By:https://cashadvancetfj.com/
Date: 6/23/2017
cash advance online - https://cashadvancetfj.com/ payday loans cash advances cash advance near me

Submitted By:https://cashadvancetfj.com/
Date: 6/23/2017
cash advance loan cash advance payday loan cash advance online cash advance online

Submitted By:https://installmentloannbbm.com/
Date: 6/23/2017
installment loans installment payday loans personal installment loan bad credit installment loans

Submitted By:https://badcreditjkkl.com/
Date: 6/23/2017
bad credit installment loans loans with bad credit loans bad credit bad credit loans andnot payday loan

Submitted By:https://personalloanplk.com/
Date: 6/23/2017
unsecured personal loans personal loans no faxing unsecured personal loans personal loans with bad credit

Submitted By:https://paydayloansxxe.com/
Date: 6/23/2017
no fax no teletrack payday loans no fax same day payday loans no fax same day payday loans payday loans 300

Submitted By:https://installmentloannbbm.com/
Date: 6/23/2017
installment loans installment loans bad credit personal installment loan bad credit personal installment loan

Submitted By:https://personalloanplk.com/
Date: 6/23/2017
personal installment loan loans personal loans personal loans with bad credit personal loans for bad credit

Submitted By:https://badcreditjkkl.com/
Date: 6/23/2017
bad credit credit cards personal loans for bad credit bad credit loan payday loans payday lender bad credit loan loans for bad credit

Submitted By:https://paydayloansxxe.com/
Date: 6/23/2017
payday loans 300 payday loans 300 no fax same day payday loans no fax same day payday loans

Submitted By:https://badcreditjkkl.com/
Date: 6/23/2017
loans people bad credit bad credit loans personal loans with bad credit bad credit personal loans

Submitted By:https://installmentloannbbm.com/
Date: 6/23/2017
installment loans bad credit installment loans bad credit personal installment loan personal installment loan

Submitted By:https://installmentloannbbm.com/
Date: 6/23/2017
bad credit installment loans bad credit installment loans online installment loans bad credit installment loans

Submitted By:https://installmentloannbbm.com/
Date: 6/23/2017
bad credit personal installment loan bad credit installment loans get installment loan bad credit installment loans

Submitted By:https://badcreditjkkl.com/
Date: 6/23/2017
loans bad credit loans with bad credit bad credit loan payday loans payday lender bad credit loan personal loans bad credit

Submitted By:https://badcreditjkkl.com/
Date: 6/23/2017
bad credit loans guaranteed approval bad credit loan bad credit credit cards bad credit instant approval payday loans

Submitted By:https://paydayloansxxe.com/
Date: 6/23/2017
no fax same day payday loans no fax no teletrack payday loans payday loans payday loans 300

Submitted By:https://paydayeev.com/
Date: 6/23/2017
payday advance usa no fax payday loans direct lenders payday advance usa no fax payday loan today

Submitted By:https://paydayeev.com/
Date: 6/23/2017
payday loans payday loan no fax document quick faxless payday loan quick faxless payday loan

Submitted By:https://paydayloansxxe.com/
Date: 6/23/2017
online payday loans with payday loans online payday loans online payday loans and no credit check

Submitted By:https://paydayloansxxe.com/
Date: 6/23/2017
payday loans and no credit check payday loans online bad credit instant approval payday loans online payday loans

Submitted By:https://personalloanplk.com/
Date: 6/23/2017
personal loans bad credit personal loans for bad credit unsecured personal loans personal loans no faxing

Submitted By:https://paydayeev.com/
Date: 6/23/2017
payday loan no fax document payday loan no fax document payday loans payday loans 300

Submitted By:https://cashadvancetfj.com/
Date: 6/23/2017
payday loans cash advances cash advance payday loans online cash advance online cash advance near me

Submitted By:https://cashadvancetfj.com/
Date: 6/23/2017
cash advance cash advance payday loan cash advance loans cash advance online

Submitted By:https://personalloanplk.com/
Date: 6/23/2017
personal loans no faxing fast cash personal loans personal installment loan personal installment loan

Submitted By:https://cashadvancetfj.com/
Date: 6/23/2017
cash advance near me cash advance loans cash advance loans cash advance online

Submitted By:https://vekpaydayadvanceloanssamepayday.com/
Date: 6/23/2017
personal loans poor credit personal loans bank easy personal loans cheap personal loans

Submitted By:https://lasbadcreditloansloanbadcredit.com/
Date: 6/23/2017
bad credit absolutely no faxing payday loan unsecured personal loans online loans no credit check instant approval online installment loans

Submitted By:https://zxepersonalloansonlinesmall.com/
Date: 6/23/2017
best debt consolidation loan debt consolidation loans online payday loans no credit check quick payday loan 1

Submitted By:https://lasbadcreditloansloanbadcredit.com/
Date: 6/23/2017
online payday loans bank account payday loan poor credit loans

Submitted By:https://personalloanplk.com/
Date: 6/23/2017
personal loans for bad credit personal loans personal loans bad credit personal loan

Submitted By:http://berpaydayloanlendersquickloans.com/
Date: 6/23/2017
cash now - http://berpaydayloanlendersquickloans.com/ personal loans with bad credit loan for bad credit

Submitted By:http://berpaydayloanlendersquickloans.com/
Date: 6/23/2017
cash advance online - http://berpaydayloanlendersquickloans.com/ emergency personal loan bad credit lender no payday loan

Submitted By:https://vekpaydayadvanceloanssamepayday.com/
Date: 6/23/2017
small personal loans bad credit personal loans for debt consolidation poor credit personal loans personal loans bad credit

Submitted By:https://zxepersonalloansonlinesmall.com/
Date: 6/23/2017
payday loan online same day personal loans personal loans for people with bad credit bad credit loan

Submitted By:https://vekpaydayadvanceloanssamepayday.com/
Date: 6/23/2017
easy personal loans $1500 payday loans personal loans for debt consolidation online personal loans bad credit

Submitted By:https://lasbadcreditloansloanbadcredit.com/
Date: 6/23/2017
pay day loan affiliate online loans no credit check loans unemployed get loan online

Submitted By:https://lasbadcreditloansloanbadcredit.com/
Date: 6/23/2017
loan with bad credit cash loan no credit check payday loan direct lender authorized payday loan

Submitted By:http://berpaydayloanlendersquickloans.com/
Date: 6/23/2017
online loans no credit - http://berpaydayloanlendersquickloans.com/ bad credit loans guaranteed approval online loan

Submitted By:https://lasbadcreditloansloanbadcredit.com/
Date: 6/23/2017
bad credit loans guaranteed approval what is payday loan online long term payday loans fast online payday loans

Submitted By:https://paydayeev.com/
Date: 6/23/2017
payday loan no fax document no fax payday loan today payday loans payday loans online

Submitted By:https://vekpaydayadvanceloanssamepayday.com/
Date: 6/23/2017
personal loans with bad credit personal loans bad credit same day personal loans small personal loans online

Submitted By:https://vekpaydayadvanceloanssamepayday.com/
Date: 6/23/2017
fast personal loans $1500 payday loans unsecured personal loans bad credit personal loans

Submitted By:https://paydayeev.com/
Date: 6/23/2017
no fax payday loan today payday loan no fax document no fax no teletrack payday loans quick faxless payday loan

Submitted By:https://zxepersonalloansonlinesmall.com/
Date: 6/23/2017
same day payday loans same day personal loans payday loan with no fax same day payday loans

Submitted By:https://cashadvancetfj.com/
Date: 6/24/2017
payday loans cash advances cash advance loans payday loans cash advances cash advance loans

Submitted By:https://zxepersonalloansonlinesmall.com/
Date: 6/24/2017
student loan consolidation get installment loan advance payday loans no fax payday loans online

Submitted By:http://berpaydayloanlendersquickloans.com/
Date: 6/24/2017
online payday loans with - http://berpaydayloanlendersquickloans.com/ fast cash payday loans online loan online payday loan

Submitted By:https://zxepersonalloansonlinesmall.com/
Date: 6/24/2017
cash advance near me emergency personal loan online payday loan no fax no teletrack payday loans

Submitted By:http://berpaydayloanlendersquickloans.com/
Date: 6/24/2017
fresno ca - http://berpaydayloanlendersquickloans.com/ bad check topayday loan bad credit

Submitted By:https://resbestpersonalloansquickonline.com/
Date: 6/24/2017
cash advance payday loans cash advances cash advance payday loans online cash advance online

Submitted By:https://lutpaydayloansonlinefastpaydayloan.com/
Date: 6/24/2017
personal installment loan personal loans no faxing bad credit personal loans personal loans

Submitted By:https://lutpaydayloansonlinefastpaydayloan.com/
Date: 6/24/2017
personal loans bad credit personal loans no faxing loans personal loans unsecured personal loans

Submitted By:https://lutpaydayloansonlinefastpaydayloan.com/
Date: 6/24/2017
loans personal loans personal loans for bad credit fast cash personal loans bad credit personal loans

Submitted By:https://resbestpersonalloansquickonline.com/
Date: 6/24/2017
cash advance loan cash advance payday loans online cash advance near me cash advance near me

Submitted By:https://resbestpersonalloansquickonline.com/
Date: 6/24/2017
cash advance cash advance loan cash advance loans cash advance

Submitted By:https://resbestpersonalloansquickonline.com/
Date: 6/24/2017
cash advance online cash advance online cash advance payday loan cash advance

Submitted By:https://lutpaydayloansonlinefastpaydayloan.com/
Date: 6/24/2017
personal loans for bad credit unsecured personal loans personal loans personal loans

Submitted By:https://lutpaydayloansonlinefastpaydayloan.com/
Date: 6/24/2017
personal loans for bad credit unsecured personal loans personal loans bad credit personal loans

Submitted By:http://berpaydayloanlendersquickloans.com/
Date: 6/25/2017
consolidation loans - http://berpaydayloanlendersquickloans.com/ what is payday loan apply credit card bad credit

Submitted By:http://berpaydayloanlendersquickloans.com/
Date: 6/25/2017
same day money loans - http://berpaydayloanlendersquickloans.com/ speedy cash payday in advance

Submitted By:https://lasbadcreditloansloanbadcredit.com/
Date: 6/25/2017
payday loan installment personal loans with bad credit online payday loans with no fax payday loans online

Submitted By:https://vekpaydayadvanceloanssamepayday.com/
Date: 6/25/2017
small personal loans bad credit low interest rate personal loans guaranteed online personal loans guaranteed personal loans

Submitted By:http://berpaydayloanlendersquickloans.com/
Date: 6/25/2017
bad credit absolutely no faxing payday loan - http://berpaydayloanlendersquickloans.com/ payday loan in payday loans for

Submitted By:https://zxepersonalloansonlinesmall.com/
Date: 6/25/2017
personal loans for bad credit fast cash loan debt consolidation loans bad credit instant cash



 
How do things work?
 RSS Feeds  |  Articles  |  Jobs  |  Leads
SiteMap  | Trading Partners | Post Classifieds  | FAQ | Forum  | View All Classifieds  | Success Stories
Resources | Health Insurance
Copyright © 2005. “SuperIndian.com ”. All rights reserved.

...