The Mughal emperor Aurangzeb was angered by Shivaji's activities, and sent a large army to finish him off for good, led by Raja Jai Singh of Amber. Shivaji was outnumbered and this time his usual guerilla tactics were successfully countered by the experienced Jai Singh. The commander of the key Purandar fort was killed in its defence (see Murarbaji). Faced with overwhelming force, Shivaji opted for peace and surrendered, accepting in the 1665 Treaty of Purandar the loss of about 80% of his territory and 23 of his forts. He retained some strategic forts, however, and refused to accept a position as a mansabdar in the Mughal military hierarchy, instead proposing his son Sambhaji.
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