According to the religious, knowledge can be gained from a religious leader, a sacred text, or personal revelation. It is not limited in scope and can try to answer any question. Some religious people maintain that knowledge obtained in this way is absolute and infallible (religious cosmology). Religious knowledge tends to vary from religion to religion, from sect to sect, and from individual to individual.
In contrast, the scientific method gains knowledge by interaction with the world, and can only answer cosmological questions about the physical universe. It tries to give theories of the world which best fit the observed evidence. All scientific knowledge is tentative, and subject to later improvement or revision in the face of better evidence. It should be noted that science can not only describe the world physically, but can also state facts that aren't physical, e.g. facts of economics, linguistics or much of psychology.
Here are a few of the areas in which some scientists and the organized Church have come into conflict from time to time.
Does the earth move around the sun or does the sun move around the earth?
Is the earth a few thousand years old or more than a billion years old?
Was there a flood that covered all the earth?
Did the various species evolve or were they individually created by God? (see Evolution)
Did the universe have a beginning or is it infinite?
Is the speed of light constant and is Einstein's Theory of Relativity correct?
Does radioactive decay occur at a predictable rate? (see Age of the Earth)
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